In order to answer whether the attack was a battle or a massacre, I will not only investigate what has been said about it in primary and secondary sources, such as critical and historical texts, government documents, autobiographies, and newspapers and magazine articles, but also will delineate the context of the attack ideologically, historically and geographically. Since part of the reason for the attack on the Washita grew out of conflicts occurring in Kansas, Nebraska and Colorado, these areas will be specifically examined. Particular attention will be paid to the Sand Creek attack, as it will serve as a basis against which to compare the attack on the Washita. In addition, to establish a pattern or a modus operandi, the backgrounds leading up to the attacks at the Washita and Sand Creek will be studied. This means other attacks, plus treaties, meetings, governmental reports and news reports will be cited to provide a context for a correct perspective of the Washita campaign. Further, the historical setting, especially the status of land ownership, will be reviewed. And, to provide a philosophical or world-view setting, so as to attempt to understand the actions which will be subsequently revealed, a brief overview of the thinking then prevalent will be given. To produce a historically illuminating story of just what did happen, the various sources of investigation will be arranged chronologically so that one can follow a kind of time line. Much of the documentation is confusing because it is presented out of sequence. Published government documents have correspondence and reports arranged out of order, with such years as 1868 coming before 1867. When reading various news reports, one looks at each item chronologically, but not as they relate to other newspapers. Books on the subject often span time segments up to the Civil War or after it, but not both before and after together. By placing such primary sources as newspaper accounts, government documents, autobiographies, eye-witness accounts, and private letters together with such secondary sources such as biographies and critical studies, one can achieve a better idea of what happened. One is able to see what followed what, tieing various events to each other, helping one event to explain the other. With respect to the newspaper and magazine research, many of the articles will be given in full, as they often represent documents that have never been published in a secondary work and because they provide valuable historical information whose meaning is easily altered by taking it out of context.
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The Arapaho considered the Black Hills, South Dakota, their country.   Knowing how the numerous Sioux entered the plains from the east during the 18th century and expanded westward, Chief Black Coal explained in 1875, "In the first place, they came from the Missouri River and reached this place, and now they have got up this far, and they claim all this land." 
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INTRODUCTION. Of the two score military books and manuals which I have written, this essay which first appeared in 1949 has had by far the most instructive ...
Everything you need to understand or teach Buffalo Soldier .