Statements have been made by some that grade inflation is confined largely to selective and highly selective colleges and universities. The three charts above indicate that these statements are not correct. Significant grade inflation is present everywhere and contemporary rates of change in GPA are on average the same for public and private schools.
Investment commitments in infrastructure with private participation in Emerging Markets and Developing Economies fell sharply in 2016. The US$ billion committed across 242 projects in 2016 represents a 37 percent decline compared to 2015 and a 41 percent decline to the annual average of US$ billion over 2011 to 2015.
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Reliability is the extent to which the same finding will be obtained if the research was repeated at another time by another researcher. If the same finding can be obtained again, the instrument is consistent or reliable.
Using period 2 quantities, the price index in period 2 is
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